Cyrtomium macrophyllum (Makino) Tagawa

Big leaf holly fern

Etymology The common name is a perfect translation. Macro means large, and phyllum means leaf, originally from the Greek word, phyllon.
Description Rhizome: erect, massive, bearing a few fronds, scales lanceolate, rather suddenly narrowing to rhizome apex, larger ones commonly 1 cm long, soft-papery, dark brown, polished.
Frond: 70 cm high by 30 cm wide, evergreen, monomorphic, blade/stipe ratio: 1:1 to 2:1.
Stipe: straw-colored, with dark base, scaly but more sparse upwards, scales of upper portion narrower to linear, dark brown, lustrous, vascular bundles: 4 or more, in an arc.
Blade: 1-pinnate, oblong-lanceolate, papery, glabrous.
Pinnae: 2 to 8 pair, rounded at base, pointed at the tip, the terminal one usually larger; veins netted.
Sori: many, round, scattered on lower surface of lateral pinnae, indusium: peltate, green to grayish white or bicolored, falling early, central, sporangia: brown.
Culture Habitat: on humus-rich ground in dense forests. Distribution: Bhutan, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, Taiwan, Tibet. Hardy to -20C, USDA Zone 6.
Distinctive Characteristics a larger plant than C. caryotideum with larger pinnae and fewer pinnae pairs
Synonyms
Aspidium falcatum (L.) Sw. var. macrophyllum Makino
Polystichum macrophyllum (Makino) Tagawa

Cyrtomium macrophyllum
Cyrtomium macrophyllum. Frond, pinnae entire, terminal pinna with more ornate margin.  Photo: Tom Stuart
Cyrtomium macrophyllum
Cyrtomium macrophyllum. Pinna from frond above. Click through for enlargement showing sori at center of pinna.  Photo: Tom Stuart
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