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Dryopteris resources
Flore laurentienneFlore laurentienne
inoperativeUnited States (link inoperative)
Flora of North AmericaFlora of North America
Hoshizaki and WilsonHoshizaki and Wilson
inoperativecross section: rachis, 7 vascular bundles (link inoperative)
also distributionalso distribution
with authorities and references; also world distributionwith authorities and references; also world distribution
Integrated Taxonomic Information SystemIntegrated Taxonomic Information System

All Ferns
     aemula  affinis
     amurensis  arguta
     bissetiana  campyloptera
     carthusiana  caucasica
     celsa  championii
     clintoniana  crassirhizoma
     cristata  cycadina
     cystolepidota  decipiens
     dilatata  erythrosora
     expansa  filix-mas
     formosana  fragrans
     fuscipes  goldiana
     hondoensis  intermedia
     kuratae  lacera
     lepidopoda  ludoviciana
     marginalis  mindshelkensis
     oreades  pacifica
     polylepis  pseudo-filix-mas
     purpurella  remota
     sacrosancta  saxifraga
     sieboldii  stewartii
     sublacera  tokyoensis
     uniformis  varia

 Other Genera
    Adiantum  Arachniodes
    Aspidotis  Asplenium
    Astrolepis  Athyrium
    Blechnum  Cheilanthes
    Cryptogramma  Cyrtomium
    Cystopteris  Dennstaedtia
    Deparia  Diplazium
    Gymnocarpium  Lygodium
    Matteuccia  Onoclea
    Oreopteris  Osmunda
    Pellaea  Phegopteris
    Pleopeltis  Polypodium
    Polystichum  Pteridium
    Pteris  Pyrrosia
    Thelypteris  Woodsia
Dryopteris Adanson (Dryopteridaceae) Earlier placement: Aspidiaceae

Wood fern, buckler fern

Etymology Greek: drys, oak + pteron, a wing, which describes the shape of the pinnae, but the word pteris was used by the ancient Greeks for all ferns.
Description Rhizome: suberect to erect, nonclathrate scales, no hairs, though occasionally glandular hairs.
Frond: deciduous or evergreen, usually monomorphic.
Stipe: grooved, scaly, vascular bundles: 2 primary and 1-5 secondary, all in a c-shaped pattern facing the top of the blade/stipe.
Blade: 1-4 pinnate, deltate-ovate to lanceolate, herbaceous to somewhat leathery, linear to ovate scales below, absent above.
Pinnae: catadromous to anadromous, costae grooved above, continuous from rachis to costae, segments margins entire, crenate, or serrate, spinulose or not, veins free, forked.
Sori: round, in 1 row between midrib and margin, indusium: reniform, at a sinus, sporangia: brownish.
Distinctive Characteristics Dryopteris is characterized by a kidney-shaped indusium over a round sorus, continuous grooves on the upper side of stipe, rachis, and costa, scaly stipes, lack of hairs, and vascular bundles in a c-shape. There are no simple or pinnatifid Dryopteris, and only one 1-pinnate species, D. sieboldii; otherwise, the range in division is 1-pinnate-pinnatifid to 3-pinnate-pinnatifid. It is similar in many respects to Polystichum, the latter differing in the umbella-shaped indusium and lack of continuity in the grooves between rachis and costa.
Dryopteris. Round sori with kidney-shaped (reniform) indusia are the signature characters of the genus. This is D. cristata.  Illustration from Scandinavian Ferns by Benjamin Ĝllgaard and Kirsten Tind, Rhodos, 1993.
Lowest Pinnae The lowest pinnae pair in Dryopteris are usually deflexed, bent downwards and forwards (above the plane of the rest of the blade). The degree of bending is usually characteristic of the species, and noted in the Dimensionality paragraph for the species.
Venation The lowest pinnae are anadromic (costa branching first upwards), the pinnae above being or becoming catadromic.
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