Hardy Fern Home

D. filix-mas resources
<i>Den virtuella floran</i>, close-up photosDen virtuella floran, close-up photos
brief accountbrief account
good close-up of sorigood close-up of sori
North AmericaNorth America
Britton & BrownBritton & Brown
from C.A.M. Lindman's Florafrom C.A.M. Lindman's Flora
inoperativerhizome, frond, fertile pinna, sorus, sporangium, Runeberg (link inoperative)
Flora of North AmericaFlora of North America
Jepson ManualJepson Manual
Hoshizaki and WilsonHoshizaki and Wilson
fertile pinnaefertile pinnae
inoperativefrond (link inoperative)
inoperativehabit and immature fertile pinna (link inoperative)
habit, Perry Creek, Cascades, Washingtonhabit, Perry Creek, Cascades, Washington
Photo index
<i>Den virtuella floran</i>, crosiersDen virtuella floran, crosiers
Bioimages: sori close-upBioimages: sori close-up

All Ferns
     aemula  affinis
     amurensis  arguta
     bissetiana  campyloptera
     carthusiana  caucasica
     celsa  championii
     clintoniana  crassirhizoma
     cristata  cycadina
     cystolepidota  decipiens
     dilatata  erythrosora
     expansa  filix-mas
     formosana  fragrans
     fuscipes  goldiana
     hondoensis  intermedia
     kuratae  lacera
     lepidopoda  ludoviciana
     marginalis  mindshelkensis
     oreades  pacifica
     polylepis  pseudo-filix-mas
     purpurella  remota
     sacrosancta  saxifraga
     sieboldii  stewartii
     sublacera  tokyoensis
     uniformis  varia

 Other Genera
    Adiantum  Arachniodes
    Aspidotis  Asplenium
    Astrolepis  Athyrium
    Blechnum  Cheilanthes
    Cryptogramma  Cyrtomium
    Cystopteris  Dennstaedtia
    Deparia  Diplazium
    Gymnocarpium  Lygodium
    Matteuccia  Onoclea
    Oreopteris  Osmunda
    Pellaea  Phegopteris
    Pleopeltis  Polypodium
    Polystichum  Pteridium
    Pteris  Pyrrosia
    Thelypteris  Woodsia
Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott

Male fern

Etymology Latin: filix, fern + mas, male
Description Rhizome: erect, stout, branching, covered with old stipe bases.
Frond: 120 cm high by 25 cm wide, deciduous, monomorphic, erect to somewhat arching, blade/stipe ratio: 2:1 to 3:1.
Stipe: grooved, straw-brown, scales pale brown, vascular bundles: 5 or 7 in a c-shaped pattern.
Blade: pinnate-pinnatifid, almost 2-pinnate, rarely more, ovate-lanceolate, widest at the middle, herbaceous to somewhat leathery, mid green, scales thin out along the green rachis.
Pinnae: 16 to 24 pair, lanceolate, straight to slightly curved upwards; basal pinnae ovate-lanceolate, much reduced; pinnules basal pinnules ± same length as adjacent pinnules, basal lower pinnule and basal upper pinnule equal, fully attached to costa along the base; costae grooved above, continuous from rachis to costae; margins serrate; veins free, forked.
Sori: round, in 1 row between midrib and margin, on the upper half of the frond, indusium: reniform, pale green at first, then whitish, then leaden-gray, then rusty brown, then shriveling, at a sinus, sporangia: black or dark brown, maturity: late summer to mid autumn.
Culture Habitat: the eastern North American variety appears only on calcareous soils, the European, Asian, and western North American variety most anywhere. Distribution: North America, Europe, Asia. Hardy to -30°C, USDA Zone 4.
Polypodium filix-mas L.
Lastrea filix-mas (L.) C. Presl.
Aspidium filix-mas (L.) Swartz
Filix-Mas filix-mas Farwell
Polystichum filix-mas (L.) Roth
Tectaria filix-mas Cav.
Thelypteris filix-mas Nieuwl.
Dryopteris filix-mas
Dryopteris filix-mas. cleft rhizome at emergence; from lower right, counterclockwise: stipe scales; pinnule with sori, linear, golden, hair-like scales; sporeling; gametophyte/sporeling; stipe base with vascular bundles; fertile pinna  Illustration from Scandinavian Ferns by Benjamin Øllgaard and Kirsten Tind, Rhodos, 1993.
Compare to Dryopteris affinis which has the dark blotch at the base of the costa, and a yellowish-green, more leathery blade, more scaly stipes, golden scales, and usually smaller size.
Parents Dryopteris oreades and D. caucasica. This is larger than the first parent. It is distinguished from the second by a darker color to the blade and simply-serrate margins of the segments rather than the doubly-serrate margins of D. caucasica.
Dryopteris filix-mas
Dryopteris filix-mas. Five vascular bundles at both the base and apex of the stipe. Compare this to the seven (at the base) and five (above) shown in Kirsten Tind's illustration.  Drawing from Ferns of Northeastern United States, Farida A. Wiley, 1936.
Dryopteris filix-mas
Dryopteris filix-mas.  Illustration from The Cultivated Species of the Fern Genus Dryopteris in the United States, Barbara Joe Hoshizaki and Kenneth A. Wilson, American Fern Journal, 89, 1, (1999), with permission.
Dryopteris filix-mas
Dryopteris filix-mas. a) frond, b) fertile pinnules.  Illustration by V. Fulford from Ferns and Fern Allies of Canada, William J. Cody and Donald M. Britton, 1989, © Agriculture Canada, used with permission.
Dryopteris filix-mas
Dryopteris filix-mas. Frond, note stipe cross-section; gametophyte; sporeling; fertile pinnule.  Illustration from Scandinavian Ferns by Benjamin Øllgaard and Kirsten Tind, Rhodos, 1993.
Valid XHTML 1.0     Reports of errors and omissions appreciated: toms AT hardyfernlibrary.com (please replace the AT with @)