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D. goldiana resources
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    Thelypteris  Woodsia
Dryopteris goldiana (Hooker ex Goldie) A. Gray

Goldie's fern, Giant wood fern

Etymology Goldiana is in honor of John Goldie, an early botanist who discovered this fern at Montreal, Canada
Description Rhizome: erect, stout.
Frond: 120 cm high by 40 cm wide, deciduous, monomorphic, blade/stipe ratio: 3:2.
Stipe: grooved, scaly at base; scales scattered, dark, glossy brown to nearly black, with pale border, vascular bundles: 7 in a c-shaped pattern at the stipe base, 5 -7 at the top of the stipe.
Blade: 2-pinnate at base, ovate, tapering abruptly at apex, herbaceous, linear to ovate scales below, absent above.
Pinnae: 15 to 20 pair, catadromous; pinnules basal pinnule equal to adjacent pinnules, basal basiscopic pinnule and basal acroscopic pinnule equal; costae grooved above, continuous from rachis to costae; margins crenate, or serrate; veins free, forked.
Sori: round, in 1 row near the midrib, indusium: reniform, white to transparent when immature, shriveling, attached at a sinus, sporangia: lead gray, then dark brown or black, maturity: midsummer.
Culture Habitat: moist woods, especially ravines, limey seeps, or at the edge of swamps . Distribution: northeastern North America. Hardy to -35C, USDA Zone 3.
Aspidium goldianum Hooker ex Goldie
Thelypteris goldiana (Hooker) Nieuwland
Nephrodium goldianum (Hooker) Hooker & Greville
Lastrea goldiana Presl
Polystichum goldieanum Keys.
Dryopteris goldiana
Dryopteris goldiana.  Illustration from The Cultivated Species of the Fern Genus Dryopteris in the United States, Barbara Joe Hoshizaki and Kenneth A. Wilson, American Fern Journal, 89, 1, (1999), with permission.
Dryopteris goldiana
Dryopteris goldiana. Seven vascular bundles at the stipe base (below) and 5-7 at the top of the stipe.  Drawing from Ferns of Northeastern United States, Farida A. Wiley, 1936.
Dryopteris goldiana
Dryopteris goldiana. a) very broad frond, bright to dark green; b) fertile pinnule, serrate margin.  Illustration by V. Fulford from Ferns and Fern Allies of Canada, William J. Cody and Donald M. Britton, 1989, Agriculture Canada, used with permission.
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