Site focus
   Navigating the site
   Why ferns are hard to identify
   Illustrated Glossary
   Flora of Australia
   Lower Vascular Plant Glossary
Hardy Fern Glossary
   Structure and Shape
   Blade Division
   Hairs and Scales
   Sori and Indusia
Major Fern Links

    Adiantum  Arachniodes
    Aspidotis  Asplenium
    Astrolepis  Athyrium
    Blechnum  Cheilanthes
    Cryptogramma  Cyrtomium
    Cystopteris  Dennstaedtia
    Deparia  Diplazium
    Dryopteris  Gymnocarpium
    Lygodium  Matteuccia
    Onoclea  Oreopteris
    Osmunda  Pellaea
    Phegopteris  Pleopeltis
    Polypodium  Polystichum
    Pteridium  Pteris
    Pyrrosia  Thelypteris
    Woodsia  Woodwardia

Navigating the Site

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Navigation Bars

The navigation bar at the top includes nearly every page on this site. This bar uses more recent technology, and will not work on early browsers. Nor will it function if you disable Javascript. (Browsers generally are installed with Javascript turned on.) If you have not turned it off, and it does not function for you, report how and where it fails, and, incidentally, which browser and version you are using (Help/About command). To write from any page on the site, scroll to the bottom and click the mailbox.

The navigation bar at your left is more limited in content, but also context sensitive. Right now it lists other topics about the site. When you are looking at a wood fern, the bar contains the web links for that wood fern, and a list of other wood ferns. It may take two or three clicks to get to another Hardy Fern Library page via this bar.


Many links here point to photos of ferns. A few of these photos are poor, small images which would not have been included but for a lack of better material. Here is your chance to provide a replacement and – who knows – become famous.

Many more of the photos are good or better. Good photos or bad photos, there is, as often as not, a link from the photo to something better (even though there may be no visible indication of such). So try a click; it costs little.

Some photos are quite large and will take time to download. If your browser is of a recent vintage, it will display large photos resized down to your screen. What you see will be an automated remake of the original, but the browser may also display a resizing icon or provide you a choice of display sizes. If you click on the resizer, or choose 100%, you'll see the original in all its glory. If you have an old browser, you'll get no choice, and be none the wiser.

Some sites have sophisticated software which allows you great control over very large, detailed images. In particular, the herbarium sites like New York Botanical Garden and Missouri Botanical Garden allow one to zoom in on herbarium sheets. This kind of material is disappointingly scarce for the temperate ferns as yet.

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