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   Navigating the site
   Why ferns are hard to identify
   Illustrated Glossary
   Flora of Australia
   Lower Vascular Plant Glossary
Hardy Fern Glossary
   Structure and Shape
   Blade Division
   Hairs and Scales
   Sori and Indusia
Major Fern Links

    Adiantum  Arachniodes
    Aspidotis  Asplenium
    Astrolepis  Athyrium
    Blechnum  Cheilanthes
    Cryptogramma  Cyrtomium
    Cystopteris  Dennstaedtia
    Deparia  Diplazium
    Dryopteris  Gymnocarpium
    Lygodium  Matteuccia
    Onoclea  Oreopteris
    Osmunda  Pellaea
    Phegopteris  Pleopeltis
    Polypodium  Polystichum
    Pteridium  Pteris
    Pyrrosia  Thelypteris
    Woodsia  Woodwardia

Glossary: Margins

Each species has characteristic margins for the lamina, for scales, and sometimes for indusia.

Margins of the Lamina, Scales, or Indusia

Margins Illustrated
196 entire194 dentate183 incised189 ciliate
192 crenate199 serrate185 lacinate200 setose
197 erose184 lacerate190 cincinnate

Base Forms for Blades, Pinnae, or Scales

Bases Illustrated
98 attenuate102 cuneate97 acute107 obtuse
96 acuminate99 auriculate
101 cordate106 hastate
110 truncate100 biauriculate105 excavate

Apical Forms for Blades, Pinnae, or Scales

Apices Illustrated
122 emarginate113 acuminate114 acute116 apiculate
118 attenuate120 cuneate127 round119 caudate
124 obtuse121 cuspidate123 mucronate

All the illustrations here are from A Modern Multilingual Glossary for Taxonomic Pteridology , David B. Lellinger, American Fern Society, 2002, with permission.
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